1967. Two electric currents travelling in opposite directions down a wire.

Royal Society ; 

Index to Catt's work on Electromagnetic Theory

Another analysis. February 2012

Welcome to Catt's World

Another Welcome

Ivor Catt   December 2010

No stationary fields. An apparently stationary electric field is always made up of two TEM Waves travelling in opposite directions such that their electric fields add from the point of view of a measuring instrument, but their magnetic fields cancel when an instrument is used to detect them.

A “steady charged capacitor” is not steady at all. It has energy reciprocating in a direction parallel with the plates.

No particles. Before I can use particles in my theories, the particle has to be properly defined. If, as I think, it is defined as having finite, rather than zero, volume, then I have to have information about how a collision with the right hand edge of a particle is communicated to the left hand edge. The idea of a particle necessarily implies two kinds of space – space outside particles, and the space inside particles. Before I can use the particle in my theories, I have to have information about the behaviour within a particle compared with behaviour in empty space.


Single Velocity Universe. Maxwell’s Equations, for what they are worth, have been incorrectly interpreted. Their solution gives an answer of +/- 1/√(µ€), which for vacuum is 300,000 km/sec. This has been incorrectly interpreted as a maximum velocity. In fact, it is the only velocity, and no other velocity, including 0, is a solution.

Maxwell’s Equations. The only information they contain about electromagnetism is two constants, 300,000 and 377. Maxwell's Equations Revisited ; The Hidden Message in Maxwell's Equations . The minus sign in Maxwell’s Equations should not be taken to indicate a Lenz’s Law type causality. The minus sign is an artefact deriving from the way we designate time. Negative Time 1 ; Negative Time 2 ; Negative Time 3 ; The Sign of Time 1 ; The Sign of Time 2 ; The Sign of Time 3 ; The Sign of Time 4

No electric current. "The End of Electric Charge .... ...."

 “The Catt Question” (1) and now (2) establish that electric charge and electric current fail to marry with a TEM Wave, which they are supposed to accompany.  However, even before these, Oliver Heaviside had begun the destruction of electricity when he said;

Now in Maxwell’s theory there is the potential energy of the displacement .... .... by the electric force, and there is the .... .... magnetic energy .... .... due to the magnetic field in all parts of the field, including the conducting parts. They are supposed to be set up by the current in the wire. We reverse this; the current in the wire is set up by the energy transmitted through the medium around it. – Oliver Heaviside, vol. 1, page 438, 1892.

He also rocked the boat when he said;

By the way, is there such a thing as an electric current? Not that it is intended to cast any doubt upon the existence of a phenomenon so called; but is it a current – that is, something moving through a wire – Oliver Heaviside, “Electrical Papers”, vol. 1, page 434, 1892.

Charge spreading out across the capacitor plate. For 100 years nobody noticed that the charge/current entering a capacitor then spread out across the capacitor plate. When this was pointed out in 1978, , the fact was ignored for a further thirty years. It undermines the rationale for Displacement Current, which Heaviside said was invented to deal with the magnetic field created in the vicinity of a capacitor. The other version of the origin of Displacement Current, as leading to waves in space, is faulted because all those who developed their ideas in that way, including Maxwell, necessarily ignored, or did not know, its fatal flaw. This is that the E and H fields are in phase in a TEM Wave, and so also in light. Being in phase, they cannot create each other. We therefore find that at the very moment when the E field is changing the most, the H field is at zero. When the E field is not changing, the H field is at its maximum. It is sobering that nobody noticed this flaw for more than 100 years. Now I have pointed it out, nobody will “notice” anyway! We will find that we are confronting dogma, not rational thought.

For eight years nobody pointed out the error, above, until I do now. It should read; “at the very moment when the E field is changing the most, the H field is changing the most. When the E field is not changing, the H field is not changing.”   Or, “when H is at its maximum, E is not changing.” E and H are in phase, so they do not change each other. Anyway, this is silly, because in the middle of a pulse, neither is changing, so change of the one cannot cause the other. Nobody pointing this out means that nobody is interested. It is not that nobody in the world is interested in Catt. Rather nobody is interested in electromagnetic theory, driven away by the bizarre maths.

 Ivor Catt  8.6.2018

Phases of E and H in a TEM Wave. It appears that self-styled expert Bigelow (below), who is in the first Google ranking, remains confused as to the relative phases of E and H in a TEM Wave.”

L-C model for a transmission line. Malcolm Davidson pointed out that once it is realised that a capacitor is a transmission line, see , the model becomes ridiculous, modelling something in terms of itself. See Wikipedia; “Schematic representation of the elementary component of a transmission line. The transmission line model represents the transmission line as an infinite series of two-port elementary components, each representing .... ”  Wikipedia and Malcolm Davidson

No self resonant frequency in a capacitor . By the formula for a capacitor as a series R L C, we see that if L is constant, caused by the capacitor’s legs, which perhaps are the same, then ω = 1/√LC means that small capacitors (low C) have a higher self resonant frequency. This is because of low C, not low L. There is no internal L. We come to the absurd conclusion that the best capacitor is the worst (lowest C) capacitor.

Michelson-Morley. There was already trouble very early in the lack of analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment. This undermines all of the work which flows from that experiment. See

“It appears to me that for the experiment to have any value, the light must act as particles during its travel, because parallel waves would interfere with each other and ruin the experiment; but it has to act as waves on arrival in order to determine transit time difference by interference fringes.” The light beam was sent to and fro in order to increase distance travelled. Adjacent beams could not be shielded from each other for fear of “ether drag”. – I Catt.

James DeMeo questions the traditional interpretation of M-M anyway.


Not electromagnetic theory.

Logic. AND, OR and INVERT are not the fundamental set in logic. We should include the Exclusive OR , which should be called “non equivalent”.

Computer Architecture. Computer architecture makes no concessions to the advantages of semiconductor technology. The architecture of the so-called “General Purpose Computer” has been frozen for fifty years. Dinosaur among the Data? and Dinosaur Computers . The move to semiconductor technology should have led to the end of the Von Neumann Bottleneck . For the proper architecture for a powerful machine, see The Kernel Machine .

The Glitch . Causes computers to crash. Probably still not in any University course or text book.