Tek 109 pulse generator



In the end, the Tektronix 109 Reed Relay Pulse Generator was not used

Experimental proof that the “Steady Charged Capacitor” is not steady at all. Continually, energy reciprocates from end to end at the speed of light.

 24/9/12  I expect the results will be ignored by all accredited experts - professors and text book writers It is no longer possible for an established paradigm to be affected by experimental results.


The April 2013 article

Tony Wakefield of Melbourne successfully completed the experiment on 5 May 2012. He achieved the predicted results C B A. I have the photographs which he sent to me from Australia. Here they are with a discussion.

It is clear from these photographs that the “steady charged capacitor” is not steady at all. Half the energy is travelling to the right at the speed of light (for the dielectric) and half is travelling to the left. When we connect a coaxial cable to the right hand end, the energy which was travelling to the right exits first, but the energy travelling in the wrong direction, to the left, first goes to the left hand end, then reflects, and only then follows the first half out into the attached coaxial cable. Thus, the pulse emitted is half the amplitude to which the “steady charged capacitor” was charged, and the pulse is twice the length of the charged capacitor.

The Killer Picture


We are driving towards the principle that

Energy (current) E x H cannot stand still; it can only travel at the speed of light.

Any apparently steady field is a combination of two energy currents travelling in opposite directions at the speed of light.


Ivor Catt   6 May 2012


The two models for a charged capacitor .




Death of Electric Current from the 1980s. This result was already predicted.


I agree, absolutely correct. – Harry Ricker. (re below.)


From: Ivor Catt <icatt@btinternet.com>
To: kc3mx@yahoo.com
Sent: Monday, April 2, 2012 10:23 AM
Subject: Fw: 109

-----Original Message----- From: Ivor Catt
Sent: Monday, April 02, 2012 3:14 PM
To: Brian Josephson ; David Tombe ; etc
Subject: 109

""I don't believe your observation, in <http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/9658.jpg>, that pulses travel in both directions when one closes a switch, does contradict classical theory."- Brian Josephson [Nobel Prize Winner]

That is not what we find from the 109 experiment. In any case, pulses are not involved. When we close the switch, we find that energy (not pulse) travels in both directions. However, what we will find from the 109 experiment is not that. It is that before the switch was closed, all the energy associated with the fact that the capacitor was charged was already travelling at the speed of light. If we never close the switch, all the energy continues to travel at the speed of light. This has revolutionary implications. It still will apply to a capacitor composed of concentric spheres. Increase the outer radius to infinity, and some capacitance remains. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/1_3.htm Figure 9 . Conventionally, some charge is sitting quietly on the surface. The 109 experiment will show that this is not so. Energy is reciprocating at the speed of light, most of it near to the remaining sphere.

Ivor Catt

Here was the start of this document in April 2012.

This is the start of a series of web pages discussing the "definitive experiment" which will prove a lesser theory of Catt, that a "steady charged capacitor" does not have stationary field. This is distinct from his more important "Theory C". [2] [3] .


Instruction Manual. Type 109 Pulse Generator. Contains the important information that the output pulse is half amplitude double length.


Instruction Manual. Type 109 Pulse Generator. Tektronix Inc.

Copyright 1963

p2-2 "The output pulse duration is equal to twice the transit time of the charge line used, plus a small built-in charge time due to the lead length from the GR panel connectors to the mercury switch contact point.

The transit time of the cable is defined as the time required for a signal to pass from one end of the line to the other. For a 10-nsec charge line then, the duration of the output pulse would be 20 nanoseconds

p2-3 "The pulse amplitude obtained will be approximately one-half the power source voltage .... "


The Reed Relay Pulse Generator

A length of 50 ohm coaxial cable is slowly charged up to v from a voltage supply via a large resistor. It is then suddenly discharged by closure of a reed relay into a 50 ohm cable. The result is a double length, half amplitude pulse.

It seems that since 1963, 46 years ago, only Catt noticed the significance of the half size double length pulse. This must surely have led to his propounding that;

"This paradox, that when the switches are closed, energy current promptly rushes away from the path made available, is understandable if one postulates that a steady charged capacitor is not steady at all; it contains energy current, half of it travelling to the right at the speed of light, and the other half travelling to the left at the speed of light.

Now it becomes obvious that when the switches are closed, the right-wards travelling energy current will exit down BC first, immediately followed by the leftwards travelling energy current after it has bounced off the open circuit at A.

We are driving towards the principle that

Energy (current) E x H cannot stand still; it can only travel at the speed of light.

Any apparently steady field is a combination of two energy currents travelling in opposite directions at the speed of light.

E and H always travel together in fixed proportion Zo."

From "Death .... ...."

Today 5 June 2009 I have just realised that we can do another experiment (to add to experiments EEB, with battery, electrolysis, electroplating, where a very long EEB is used and we monitor the output from it in the first few nanoseconds after switch-on).

The new experiment is to set up a Tek 109 with a 40 nsec charging line, but introduce monitor points every 10 nsec along the line into a sampling scope. We will then see the clean way in which the charged voltage, say 10v, drops to 5v at the appropriate moment when the first part of the output pule has gone past to the right but the second part, travelling in the opposite direction, is still present. That is, first of all we will see 10v and then for a period we will see 5v, then 0v. The Establishment will have to resist the obvious conclusion, that before the reed relay was closed, half of the energy in the cable was travelling to the right, and the other half to the left. Nothing was ever stationary.

[However, see a further development at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/96511.htm . Instead of probing the 40 nsec coax, insert a 100 ohm resistor in the inner conductor half way along the 40 nsec. Then look at the waveform emitted from the 40 nsec cable. Ivor Catt 28 July 2009.]

Ivor Catt 5 June 2009

[24 July 2009. The experiment is even more conclusive if we dig into the very long coax into which the pulse is delivered at two or three 10 nsec intervals, and photograph the waveforms there as well. I. Catt]

Predicted waveforms ; Predicted situation every 10 nsec.

Voltage at each point in the cable at intervals of 10 nsec. Location of each segment of TEM Wave (or energy current) is placed according to the Catt theory. Note that the energy is already moving before the switch closes.

Discussion in 1980 (Full article p1 , p2 , p3 )

The IEEE begins to follow


I only thought of this experiment minutes ago, and had not thought through its full significance.
I now realise the following, but for clarity I must be sure you understand the experiment.
The 109 slowly charges up to 10v, say, a length of coax (?40nsec say?) from a high resistor. A reed relay is then closed at its end into a 50 ohm coax cable, and an 80nsec 5v pulse proceeds down the cable. What is interesting is that the pulse is double length and half amplitude.
The new idea today is to have voltage probes along the length of the 40nsec coax. At the same instant during discharge, 10v will be seen along part of the charged line, and 5v along another part.
This has never been seen, even my me.

It would be difficult to counter the obvious conclusion that 5v was travelling to the right, and 5v to the left. It might of course be easier, but still difficult, to counter the conclusion that even before the reed relay was closed, 5v was travelling to the right and 5v to the left.

Of course, we know that entrenched academics and text book writers will not counter it, but ignore it.
Ivor later on 5 June 2009


Late evening 5 June 2009

I now realise that the proposed experiment is more conclusive than I thought a few hours ago.

As I said before, we will have a series of voltage monitoring points along the length of the 40 nsec piece of coax which is charged up. According to the model which will be proved, a portion (half) of the energy current present in the first sector nearest to the reed relay will have exited first, so the remaining voltage there will be 5v instead of the previous 10v. At that moment, the voltage in the main portion of the 40nsec cable will still be 10v. Then in the next short period of 10nsec, a further segment of the 40nsec cable will deplete from 10v to 5v. We will then follow a 5v step travelling to the left receding from the exit, reed relay point. That is, astep down from 10v to 5v will recede away from the exit reed relay point, above a steady 5v travelling to the right. It will become obvious that energy current ExH is receding away from the exit point, the amplitude of the receding energy current being 5v. We will then have established the crucial point, that when the reed relay closes, energy current receded away from the newly available exit point.

This seems to be a key experiment which will confirm that energy current ( = ExH = Poynting Vector ) cannot stand still. It can only travel at the speed of light. An apparently steady charged piece of coaxial cable ( = capacitor) thought to have stationary charge on the conductors and steady E field between is actually all electromagnetic, not electric, field travelling reciprocally at the speed of light. The apparent proof by this experiment that energy travels away from the newly appearing exit point from the cable ( = capacitor) is compelling.

Ivor Catt




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