2016. Recent developments . Florence Professors rush in where angels fear to tread.

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Ivor Catt's Web

The Catt Question (animation)


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Second Catt Question and 1 + 2

Josephson's answer

Third Catt Question

"Anonymous" of the Clarendon and 1

History of "The Catt Question".

Origin of "The Catt Question"

Traditionally. when a TEM step (i.e. logic transition from low to high) ( Figures 3, 4, 5 from Electromagnetism 1 ) travels through a vacuum from left to right, guided by two conductors (the signal line and the 0v line), there are four factors which make up the wave;

- electric current in the conductors i
- magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B
- electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q , -q        
- electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge (Figure 2), D

Signal wire


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Animation by Eugen Hockenjos © :)0i 2000

The key to grasping the question is to concentrate on the electric charge -q on the bottom conductor. The step advances one foot per nanosecond. Extra negative charge appears on the surface of the bottom conductor to terminate the new lines (tubes) of electric flux D (figure 2) which appear between the top (signal) conductor and the bottom conductor.

Since 1982 the question has been: Where does this new charge come from?
Sir Michael Pepper, Knighted "for services to Physics", says it comes from the south.

pepper.pdf (

Nobel Prizewinner Professor Josephson say it comes from the west.

Accredited experts line up, half behind Pepper (Southerners) and half behind Josephson ( Westerners ).

Professor Martin Rees, President of The Royal Society, may or may not do something about it.

For further information on The Catt Question, see

  • letters in the following issues of Wireless World; aug82, dec82,
    aug83, oct83, dec83, nov84, dec84, jan85, feb85, may85, june85, jul85, aug85


Historic ; Faraday's Law


Professor Josephson claims “The Catt Question” is complicated.

See the book about it.

May 2009 in "Electronics World"

There is a persistent desire to think that cattq is a theory, or that Catt finds fault with classical theory. The truth is, it is only a Question .

Professor Kiehn

Stephen Crothers





Ivor Catt <>





Howie was head of the Cavendish Laboratory from 1989 to 1997.    

In 1983 he wrote to me 2pp about cattq , mentioning the eggs to Oxford.  He is a westerner. (He sends ten times as many eggs too slowly.)

I tried again 10 years later. In 1993 Pepper wrote to me. taking the southerner position. You see that he dismissed the (Howie) westerner position over cattq. Pepper worked for Howie in the Cavendish. Sir Michael Pepper was later "knighted for services to physics". 

For the next 30 years they refused to discuss their contradictory positions.

I shall further elaborate their truly scandalous behaviour, blocking scientific advance for nearly half a century.

Ivor Catt