January 2011.

For the Layman

This may also help understanding

Advice on reading “The End of Electric Charge and Electric Current as we know them” Part 1 and Part 2 from Electronics World, January 2011 and February 2011 .

The article is also at Part 1 and Part 2

Letters commenting on the article. More More More correspondence 2  

Ivor Catt.

Comments please to ivorcatt@live.co.uk

Comments by Professors

Learned (refereed) journals and professors

What about students?






About classical electrodynamics

The 109 Experiment



This article develops from my 1967 article

  "Crosstalk (Noise) in Digital Systems" 

where you also get access to the articles cited in 2011


It is important to not get bogged down in the mathematics, which could have been omitted. Initially, skim through the maths in the second column, which merely proves that a signal travelling down a coaxial cable sees ahead 50 ohms and travels at the speed of light for the dielectric. Avoid the third column; “Crosstalk in Digital Systems”, which is merely an extension of the previous maths, but deals with more conductors and shows that whereas in a coaxial cable a single impedance and single velocity is permissible, in the case of more wires, more “modes” are possible. The mathematics is very similar to what went before, but more complicated, now involving not only self inductance, but also mutual inductance. Try to assume, initially, that complicated mathematics proves two impedances and two velocities rather than only one in the case of coax.


At this point, look at the photographs, Figure 3 for visual proof of the two “modes”, and so bypass the mathematics.


Note that Figure 4 is an idealised version of Figure 3. A plane wave front is advancing at the speed of light guided by the conductors. It begins at the third trace, then advances 3 metres to the second trace, then another three metres.


Figure 4 diagramatically clarifies the waveforms.


I very much need comment from you as to your expertise, and how difficult you find the article. Send comments to ivorcatt@live.co.uk . Suggestions for improvement would be valuable.