Comments after the talk are at the bottom.
Article on which this
talk is based. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x164npa.pdf
to Catt's World
In around 1870, Oliver Heaviside went up to Newcastle to help his brother to
send Morse pulses from Newcastle to Denmark in an undersea coaxial cable.
He speeded up the data rate by moving from the RC model of charging up the
cable’s capacitance to the idea of “Energy Current”, a slab, or pulse, of
energy current travelling at the speed of light through the dielectric
guided by two conductors. It carried all its properties unchanged.
Unfortunately, not long
after, Marconi succeeded in sending wireless signals. For the next century
everyone assumed that changing electric field in space causes magnetic
field, and changing magnetic field causes electric field. Heaviside’s wired theory was suppressed, and he was not
mentioned in any text book for the next half century.
Having the idea of one
field causing the other firmly in your mind, and the mind of every
professor and text book writer, it is impossible for you to grasp the obvious,
a block, or pulse, of energy travelling between the wires at the speed of
light. E and H coexist, and do not cause each other, in the same way as the
width of a brick flying through the air does not cause its height and vice
versa. Following Newton’s First Law, it just continues to travel. So does
an electromagnetic pulse. http://www.ivorcatt.com/2604.htm
Before going to my new
material, I have to get you away from the false model, of E causing H causing
E, and get you to think of the obvious, that the pulse, a slab of energy,
travels unchanging between two guiding conductors at the speed of light,
just like a train between rails. Four figures show versions of the signal,
in this case a step rather than a pulse. When we close the two switches in
the first figure, an electromagnetic field is emitted from the battery, and
travels at the speed of light guided by the two conductors. It has four
features; electric charge on the surface of the conductors, electric field,
electric current and magnetic field.
In 1969, using only
Faraday’s Law of Induction and the law of conservation of charge, I
published the proof that only one ratio of voltage to current, called Zo, and only one velocity c was possible.
Travelling at the speed
of light, each wafer of energy cannot see what is in front of it or what is
Now we move on to the
revolutionary material. We consider the case of two parallel conductors
above a ground plane. More than seventy years ago it was known that two
possible modes existed. First, the Even Mode, with the two conductors at
the same potential. Second, the Odd Mode, with the two conductors at equal
and opposite potentials, with electric current flowing into one conductor
and back out of the other. There was no thought as to whether the two modes
could be superposed.
Since a ground plane is
like a mirror, it is easier to consider four conductors, where the two
modes still apply. Forty years ago, in a refereed journal, I proved that
only the two modes were possible. Advancing from two conductors, where I
only used self inductance and conservation of charge, I now added mutual
inductance – the magnetic field between the two conductors on the right
caused by currents in the left hand conductors, and “mutual capacitance”,
the voltage drop between the two conductors on the right caused by charge
on the left hand conductors.
I was excited to find
that in the case of surface conductors, these two modes travelled at
different velocities. For forty years I failed to notice something much
more important, about superposition. When I injected a step into the left
hand buried conductor, a smaller step appeared in the right hand conductor.
These two steps, large and small, travelled together. This was a third,
illegal mode, composed of the Even Mode and the Odd Mode superposed. My
mathematical proof outlawed this unbalanced mode. However, it was much more
serious, because in the even mode electric current travelled into the right
hand conductor towards the right, while in the superposed odd mode electric
current travelled out of the same conductor towards the left. Classical
theory does not allow two electric currents travelling in a single
conductor in opposite directions, each causing its own magnetic field.
At this point it is
useful to look at a narrow spike introduced into the left hand surface
conductor. A smaller spike immediately appears in the right hand conductor,
as with the previous large step and small step. Travelling at different
velocities, the two superposed modes separate out, as we see three metres
down the line. This is convincing proof that in the first traces, before
they separate out, the two modes are superposed.
This is only the latest,
clearest demonstration that electricity is not fit for purpose. The first
was “The Catt Question” http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/cattq.htm
, which twenty years ago received contradictory answers from
leading luminaries. Then came “The End of .... “ last
, which the 30 relevant professors refuse to comment on. However, this
example, just given to you, is even more clear.
For other reasons, in
1976 I stumbled on the resolution of the problem. http://www.ivorcatt.com/2608.htm
. When a battery is connected to a lamp by two wires, and the lamp lights,
electric current is not involved. Electric charge and current do not exist.
They are always on the edge of some energy current.
Although a cloud cannot
exist without edges, the edges of a cloud do not exist. They have no volume
or mass. The same is true of electric current, on the edge of energy
current ExH. A Maxwell Equation links a
physically real field, electric or magnetic, with a non-existent
mathematical manipulation of the field, this being called electric charge
or electric current. For example, f(E)=ρ. E
exists, but ρ does not. It is an edge. Similarly i.
If, as we see,
electricity cannot do its job when a battery lights a lamp, what is left of
the idea of electricity? Does it have to go the way of phlogiston and
caloric, as the last of the mediaeval fluids? How much of “Modern Physics”
will survive such a debacle? Do we have to suppress it, in order to save
the professional structure of today’s science? The first step is for all
professors and text book writers to ignore this lecture, or else to not
understand it. That should not be difficult. Already they don’t understand
the TEM Wave. http://www.electromagnetism.demon.co.uk/20136.htm
The Catt Question
The first four figures show
different aspects of a TEM step launched from a battery into a pair of
parallel conductors. The set comprises four factors;
- electric current in the conductors i
- magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B
- electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q
- electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge (Figure 2), D
Where does the negative
electric charge which appears on the bottom conductor come from?
“Westerners” like Nobel Prizewinner Josephson http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2813.htm say
it comes from the battery. “Southerners” like Sir Michael Pepper, knighted
for services to Physics, say http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2812.htm ; “As the wave travels at light velocity, then charge
supplied from outside the system would have to travel at light velocity as
well, which is clearly impossible.” He says
that the charge required to terminate the newly appearing electric flux
comes up from inside the conductor.
Do Google searches for
“pepper frs” and “dr neil mcewan”.
The problem is resolved
by moving to “Theory C”. The electric charge cannot get in place in time
because it doesn’t exist. http://www.ivorcatt.com/2_4.htm
"The End of Electric Charge
and Electric Current as we know them”
Comments after the talk.
When we charge a capacitor
through a resistor, we do not see an exponential. We see a staircase. http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm
1967 paper. Crosstalk (Noise) in Digital
Systems This has about 20 oscilloscope photographs, of which four were
used in this talk. The key evidence of a fatal flaw in classical theory has
lain dormant here for 40 years.
The Rise and Fall of Bodies of
The Clever take
The Politics of Knowledge
The Rolling Wave.
The reason why professors
and test book writers cannot grasp the TEM Wave is because the long
tradition of “E causes H causes E”. This started with Faraday’s "discovery
of electromagnetic induction" .
Feynman and Einstein preach
the false theory. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x0102em.htm
This false idea survives
because of confusion as to the relative phases of E and H. http://www.play-hookey.com/optics/transverse_electromagnetic_wave.html