Talk to NPA, 4 June 2011

Ivor Catt.



Comments after the talk are at the bottom.


Article on which this talk is based.

Electromagnetism Index

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In around 1870, Oliver Heaviside went up to Newcastle to help his brother to send Morse pulses from Newcastle to Denmark in an undersea coaxial cable. He speeded up the data rate by moving from the RC model of charging up the cable’s capacitance to the idea of “Energy Current”, a slab, or pulse, of energy current travelling at the speed of light through the dielectric guided by two conductors. It carried all its properties unchanged.


Unfortunately, not long after, Marconi succeeded in sending wireless signals. For the next century everyone assumed that changing electric field in space causes magnetic field, and changing magnetic field causes electric field. Heaviside’s wired theory was suppressed, and he was not mentioned in any text book for the next half century.


Having the idea of one field causing the other firmly in your mind, and the mind of every professor and text book writer, it is impossible for you to grasp the obvious, a block, or pulse, of energy travelling between the wires at the speed of light. E and H coexist, and do not cause each other, in the same way as the width of a brick flying through the air does not cause its height and vice versa. Following Newton’s First Law, it just continues to travel. So does an electromagnetic pulse.


Before going to my new material, I have to get you away from the false model, of E causing H causing E, and get you to think of the obvious, that the pulse, a slab of energy, travels unchanging between two guiding conductors at the speed of light, just like a train between rails. Four figures show versions of the signal, in this case a step rather than a pulse. When we close the two switches in the first figure, an electromagnetic field is emitted from the battery, and travels at the speed of light guided by the two conductors. It has four features; electric charge on the surface of the conductors, electric field, electric current and magnetic field.


In 1969, using only Faraday’s Law of Induction and the law of conservation of charge, I published the proof that only one ratio of voltage to current, called Zo, and only one velocity c was possible.


Travelling at the speed of light, each wafer of energy cannot see what is in front of it or what is behind it.


Now we move on to the revolutionary material. We consider the case of two parallel conductors above a ground plane. More than seventy years ago it was known that two possible modes existed. First, the Even Mode, with the two conductors at the same potential. Second, the Odd Mode, with the two conductors at equal and opposite potentials, with electric current flowing into one conductor and back out of the other. There was no thought as to whether the two modes could be superposed.


Since a ground plane is like a mirror, it is easier to consider four conductors, where the two modes still apply. Forty years ago, in a refereed journal, I proved that only the two modes were possible. Advancing from two conductors, where I only used self inductance and conservation of charge, I now added mutual inductance – the magnetic field between the two conductors on the right caused by currents in the left hand conductors, and “mutual capacitance”, the voltage drop between the two conductors on the right caused by charge on the left hand conductors.


I was excited to find that in the case of surface conductors, these two modes travelled at different velocities. For forty years I failed to notice something much more important, about superposition. When I injected a step into the left hand buried conductor, a smaller step appeared in the right hand conductor. These two steps, large and small, travelled together. This was a third, illegal mode, composed of the Even Mode and the Odd Mode superposed. My mathematical proof outlawed this unbalanced mode. However, it was much more serious, because in the even mode electric current travelled into the right hand conductor towards the right, while in the superposed odd mode electric current travelled out of the same conductor towards the left. Classical theory does not allow two electric currents travelling in a single conductor in opposite directions, each causing its own magnetic field.


At this point it is useful to look at a narrow spike introduced into the left hand surface conductor. A smaller spike immediately appears in the right hand conductor, as with the previous large step and small step. Travelling at different velocities, the two superposed modes separate out, as we see three metres down the line. This is convincing proof that in the first traces, before they separate out, the two modes are superposed.


This is only the latest, clearest demonstration that electricity is not fit for purpose. The first was “The Catt Question” , which twenty years ago received contradictory answers from leading luminaries. Then came “The End of .... “ last January , which the 30 relevant professors refuse to comment on. However, this example, just given to you, is even more clear.


For other reasons, in 1976 I stumbled on the resolution of the problem. . When a battery is connected to a lamp by two wires, and the lamp lights, electric current is not involved. Electric charge and current do not exist. They are always on the edge of some energy current.


Although a cloud cannot exist without edges, the edges of a cloud do not exist. They have no volume or mass. The same is true of electric current, on the edge of energy current ExH. A Maxwell Equation links a physically real field, electric or magnetic, with a non-existent mathematical manipulation of the field, this being called electric charge or electric current. For example, f(E)=ρ. E exists, but ρ does not. It is an edge. Similarly i.


If, as we see, electricity cannot do its job when a battery lights a lamp, what is left of the idea of electricity? Does it have to go the way of phlogiston and caloric, as the last of the mediaeval fluids? How much of “Modern Physics” will survive such a debacle? Do we have to suppress it, in order to save the professional structure of today’s science? The first step is for all professors and text book writers to ignore this lecture, or else to not understand it. That should not be difficult. Already they don’t understand the TEM Wave.



The Catt Question

The first four figures show different aspects of a TEM step launched from a battery into a pair of parallel conductors. The set comprises four factors;

- electric current in the conductors i
- magnetic field, or flux, surrounding the conductors B
- electric charge on the surface of the conductors +q , -q
- electric field, or flux, in the vacuum terminating on the charge (Figure 2)
, D

Where does the negative electric charge which appears on the bottom conductor come from? “Westerners” like Nobel Prizewinner Josephson say it comes from the battery. “Southerners” like Sir Michael Pepper, knighted for services to Physics, say ; As the wave travels at light velocity, then charge supplied from outside the system would have to travel at light velocity as well, which is clearly impossible.”  He says that the charge required to terminate the newly appearing electric flux comes up from inside the conductor.


Do Google searches for “pepper frs” and “dr neil mcewan”.


The problem is resolved by moving to “Theory C”. The electric charge cannot get in place in time because it doesn’t exist.



"The End of Electric Charge and Electric Current as we know them”


Comments after the talk.


When we charge a capacitor through a resistor, we do not see an exponential. We see a staircase.


1967 paper. Crosstalk (Noise) in Digital Systems This has about 20 oscilloscope photographs, of which four were used in this talk. The key evidence of a fatal flaw in classical theory has lain dormant here for 40 years.



The Rise and Fall of Bodies of Knowledge

The Clever take the Brilliant

The Politics of Knowledge


The Rolling Wave.

The Heaviside Signal .

The reason why professors and test book writers cannot grasp the TEM Wave is because the long tradition of “E causes H causes E”. This started with Faraday’s "discovery of electromagnetic induction" .

Feynman and Einstein preach the false theory.

This false idea survives because of confusion as to the relative phases of E and H.