Analysis within

Electromagnetism Synthesis, early 2010

Ivor Catt

We will analyse why accredited Electromagnetic Theory luminaries (including referees for learned journals) fail to grasp the apparently simple, clear TEM step travelling at the speed of light, guided by two conductors. This is shown by me here; and in two animations here; . My co-author Dr. David Walton discusses the true nature of the TEM Wave.


A number of factors hopelessly obscure the subject in the minds of accredited experts; (1) wave-particle dualism; (2) the idea that a TEM Wave can only be sinusoidal. The very few animations of the TEM Wave to be found on the www are all sinusoidal, and are not guided by conductors; (3) the associated idea, coming from Faraday and Oersted, that electricity causes magnetism and magnetism causes electricity , leading to the erroneous, “Rolling Wave” model for the TEM Wave, discussed by me at and taught by Einstein, Feynman and Penrose, see below;




"Einstein teaches 'The Rolling Wave'. - Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, 'The Evolution of Physics', pub. CUP 1938, p154; ' .... What kind of changes are now spreading in the case of an electromagnetic wave? Just the changes of an electromagnetic field! Every change of an electric field produces a magnetic field; every change of this magnetic field produces an electric field; every change of ...., and so on. As field represents energy, all these changes spreading out in space, with a definite velocity, produce a wave. The electric and magnetic lines of force always lie, as deduced from the theory, on planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The wave produced is, therefore, transverse.'"

Extraordinarily, before this, Einstein had discussed the way (p141) “The change of an electric field .... is always accompanied by a magnetic field.” and (p146) “a changing magnetic field is accompanied by an electric field” and then wrote; (p148) “The formulation of these equations is the most important event in physics since Newton’s time, not only because of their wealth of content, but also because they form a pattern for a new type of law.” (Actually, Einstein had delivered words and no equations.) In stark contrast, see The Hidden Message in Maxwell's Equations .

Einstein at 16




R Feynman: “Now let us ask what happens if we suddenly stop the motion of the charged sheet after it has been on for a short time, *T*…
“In short, we have a little piece of field- a block of thickness *cT*- which has left the current sheet and is traveling through space all by itself… The caterpillar has turned into a butterfly!
“How can this bundle of electric and magnetic fields maintain itself? The answer is: by the combined effects of the Faraday law, [curlE = -dB/dt], and the new term of Maxwell, [c^2curlB = dE/dt]. They cannot help maintaining themselves. Suppose the magnetic field were to disappear. There would be a changing magnetic field which would produce an electric field. If this electric field tries to go away, the changing electric field would create a magnetic field back again. So, by a perpetual interplay- BY THE SWISHING BACK AND FORTH FROM ONE FIELD TO THE OTHER- they must go on forever. It is impossible for them to disappear*. [*footnote- ‘well not quite’, they can be absorbed] They maintain themselves in a kind of a dance- one making the other, the second making the first- propagating onward through space.” [Note 1]--p 18-8, Vol II (emphasis added)


John Gribbin; “Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution”, pub. Bantam 2012, p162;

“Feynman knew that Maxwell’s Equations, which describe all electromagnetic radiation, are symmetrical in time .... He suggested, backing up the suggestion with calculations, that when an electron (or any charged particle) is jiggled about, it radiates electromagnetic waves both into the future and into the past. Wherever, and whenever, this radiation meets another electron (or other charged particle), it makes that particle juggle about, and spread waves into the past and into the future/”

Feynman and the TEM Wave



Professor Roger Penrose; “The Emperor’s New Mind”, pub. Vintage 1989, p240. “One implication of Maxwell’s equations was that electric and magnetic fields would indeed ‘push’ each other along through empty space. An oscillating magnetic field would give rise to an oscillating electric field (this was implied by Faraday’s experimental findings), and this oscillating electric field would, in turn, give rise to an oscillating magnetic field (by Maxwell’s theoretical inference), and this again would give rise to an electric field and so on.”



Kip teaches "The Rolling Wave".

Arthur F. Kip, “Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism”, pub. McGraw-Hill, 1962, page 320; “Our demonstration involves the use of the first two Maxwell equations to show that such a postulated time and space variation of E gives rise to a similar time and space variation of H (but at right angles to E) and that this variation acts back to cause the postulated variation in E. Thus, once such a wave is initiated, it is self-propagating.
The figure on the next page is used to show the application of Faraday’s Law of Induction to the plane wave, postulated to be moving along the x direction. A convenient closed path is drawn in the xy plane, around which we shall take the line integral of E. This is equated through Faraday’s Law to the rate of change of flux H through the plane bounded by the path of the line integral. Only the vertical parts of the line integral contribute since E is in the y direction …. “. For diagrams, go here and here..

I quote; " .... time and space variation of H .... this variation acts back to cause the postulated variation in E. .... " Note that as with everyone else in every single text book during the 20th century, Kip does not comment on the relative phase of E and H. However, "acts back" seems to imply that he has noticed the problem, that E and H are in phase, so that it is difficult to see each causing the other. Of course, further problems arise if the TEM Wave is not sinusoidal. For instance, half way through a long TEM pulse, there is no variation of E or of H, and yet the central part of the pulse continues to travel at the speed of light. So how is "it is self-propagating"? Since Kip ignores (probably because he has never heard of) the TEM pulse, it is not surprising that he ignores the less fundamental problem caused to his theory by the fact that E and H are in phase in a sine wave. The fact is that he takes the traditional story of Faraday's Law of Induction and force-fits it onto a TEM Wave withouth too much thought. What he does is similar to what I did in my December 1967 IEEE paper and here many years before and after I discovered the truth.- I Catt, 22 July 2009.



Professor Kip  Also Appendix 2 of





J D Jackson, “Classical Electrodynamics”, pub. Wiley 1962/1998, p238; “ΔxH = J + δD/δt (6.5) .... Maxwell called the additional term in (6.5) the displacement current. Its presence means that a changing electric field cajuses a magnetic field .... the converse of Faraday’s law. This necessary addition to Ampere’s law is of crucial importance for rapidly fluctuating fields. Without it there would be no electromagnetic radiation, and the greatest part of the remainder of this book [540 more pp] would have to be omitted.”

This book is the bible of US university courses in electromagnetism.




Prof. H H Skilling, Stanford, “Fundamentals of Electric Waves”, pub. Wiley 1942/48, p111; “Maxwell’s hypothesis was that .... a magnetic field is produced by the sum of the conduction current and the displacement current.”




In order to grasp the TEM step, one has to have in mind “The Heaviside Signal”, . Also, the idea that electromagnetism can be particulate in nature (the photon) as well as wave, hopelessly confuses the accredited expert, along with everyone else.



“The special theory of relativity owes its origin to Maxwell’s equations of the electromagnetic field.” Einstein quoted in Schilpp, P A, “Albert Einstein, Philosopher – Scientist,” Library of Living Philosophers, 1949, p62.'s_equations Some of the silly stuff camouflaging electromagnetic theory. Fancy equations with tenuous connection with physical reality.