Theory D.

When a battery is connected to a lamp by two wires and the lamp lights, nothing travels along inside the wires.

(Discovered on May 26, 1976.)


Later version; http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/theoryd.htm

A restatement of Theory D on 9.4.2021

A long charged capacitor has energy reciprocating from end to end between the electrodes. See Wakefield.

http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x3216b.pdf . If it is connected at both ends at the same instant, the energy travelling to the left comes out at the left, and the energy travelling to the right comes out at the right.

When two parallel wires are connected to the electrodes of a battery, some of this energy rushes out, guided by the wires. It is called ExH. If a lamp is connected at the end of the wires, the lamp receives the energy and lights.

During its journey, some of the ExH energy turns sideways and enters the wires, warming them. Using the characteristics of the copper wire and of space, this energy can be calculated mathematically. This ExH energy dissipated in the wire, similar to the energy reaching the lamp, has been wrongly thought to be another substance, electricity. It is not. It is all ExH energy.


(The concept of “skin depth” is relevant, involving more mathematics, reinforcing the mathematical artefact, “electric current”.)

All this (“electric current”) has no answer to cattq, http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/cattq.htm , where the fabrications break down.


Washing up




It is necessary to clarify certain details in the present situation. The problem is brought out in Alex Yakovlev’s Royal Society article when he says; “Theory C, or Catt theory”.

It was a mistake for me to christen the third theory “Theory C”, since it brought confusion. My defence is perhaps that it was the third theory, coming after A and B.

Sir Isaac Newton’s Three Laws of Motion are immortal, but Newton was not. The three laws, not Newton, are what is important. Newton was merely an instrument for the truth.

Recently I attempted to clarify our situation by naming the four laws N, H, C and C+.

I now revoke this christening.

The four theories are N, H, C and D. This moves it away from personalities. The destination is Theory D, not C.

Theory N. The battery delivers current into the wires. The (electric) current causes the ExH field. The ExH field enters the lamp, and it lights up.

Theory H. (“We reverse this,” Heaviside.) The battery delivers the ExH energy current between the wires. The energy current causes the current in the wires. The ExH energy enters the lamp and the lamp lights. (Some of the energy enters the wires sideways, and warms them.) The energy which lights the lamp always travelled in the space between the wires. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x41h.pdf ; “By the way, is there such a thing as an electric current?”

Theory C. The battery delivers the ExH energy current. The ExH enters the lamp and the lamp lights. Electric current is not involved.

Theory D. The battery delivers the ExH energy current between the wires. The ExH energy enters the lamp and the lamp lights. There is no electric current.

Ivor Catt.  11.12.2018


Theories N, H, C, D, Washing Up - with questions for discussion




Monika Vandory

3:45 PM (3 hours ago)



to me


Theory N
Is the normal theory, normal means in this case established, accepted by the mainstream, accepted by everybody.
The battery delivers
 electric current into the wires. The electric current causes or creates the electric (E) and magnetic (H) field in the space between (or around the wires?) written ExHThe ExHfield enters the lamp, and it lights up.

Theory H
“We reverse this”, said Heaviside. The battery delivers electric and magnetic field (ExH), called 
energy current between the wires. The energy current causes the current in the wires. Some of the energy current enters the wires (when entered in the wires called current to distinguish it from N, electric current delivered by the battery or  ??) sideways, and warms the wires. The energy current (ExHenters the lamp and the lamp lights. The energy current (ExH) which lights the lamp always travelled in the space between the wires.

Theory C
When the battery lights a lamp 
electric current is not involved. The battery delivers the energy current (ExH) and the energy current lights the lamp.

Theory D 
There is no 
electric current. The battery delivers the energy current(ExH) between the wires. The energy current lights the lamp.


H, C and D, all 3 are explained by energy currentEnergy current (ExH) lights the lamp.

C  only excludes  electric current but doesn't negate its existence.

D  Denies existence of electric current.

N, H, C and D have in common that the field (ExH) or (field (ExH) between the wires finally lights the lamp, correct? [Yes. Ivor Catt. 15.3.2020]

Open Questions written in blue. – Monica Vandory, Salzburg







Sat, 21 Mar, 17:37 (3 days ago)

to John, me, Malcolm, Alex


If it makes someone content, I will say that I do not know if Theory D is utter rubbish, and I do not have the time, means or inclination to try to find out.

Tony Davies

2020 March 21st

Prof Anthony C Davies

Emeritus Professor, King's College London

IEEE R8 History Activities coordination

IEEE Industry Applications Society Distinguished Lecturer 2017-2018



Echoing “inclination”


“Following our strenuous but unsuccessful efforts many years 
ago to resolve the difference between us, I am however
not at all 
by the idea of revisiting them!

Howie wilfully misrepresents what happened. He disagreed with Pepper, who worked for him, and not with me. Two careerists disagreed as to the dogma they taught. The academic mafia have to pretend to be united (and know their subject). The dogma is replete with internal contradictions, not just cattq. It’s a leaking ship! http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x37p.htm ; http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x67d.htm


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Howie ; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Pepper


Crimestop means the faculty of stopping short, as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought. It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to Ingsoc, and of being bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction. Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity.

- G. Orwell, 1984, pub. Chancellor, 1984 edn., p225


Our electrical theory has grown like a ramshackle farmhouse which has been added to, and improved, by the additions of successive tenants to satisfy their momentary needs, and with little regard for the future. We regard it with affection. We have grown used to the leaks in the roof .... But our haphazard house cannot survive for ever, and it must ultimately be replaced by a successor whose beauty is of structure rather than of sentiment.
- H W Heckstall-Smith, Intermediate Electrical Theory, pub. Dent, 1932, p283.



Brunel study brings

Dol funding of

Catt projects to £50,000

At Brunel Univ., Middlesex Univ., and RSRE Malvern. Equivalent to £300,000 today.