About classical electrodynamics
Years of Electromagnetic Theory
The four major problems
The Catt Question.
Pictures deriving from
This paper points out an oversight
which has continued for a century. This is discussed in my article at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/41.htm
Our article in December
1978 pointed out that electric charge entering the plate of a capacitor
did not immediately desire to traverse the space between the capacitor
is wrong when (s)he writes that the field between
the plates is uniform.) After entering the capacitor plate from the input
wire, the charge first has to spread itself across the plate. Only then can
it express a desire to traverse the space between the plates.
This desire led to "Maxwell's leap of genius",
Displacement Current. Maxwell himself, and all those who followed him and
worshipped him, failed to notice that after entering the capacitor plate
from the input wire, the charge had first to spread itself across the
plate. This intermediate step has been ignored by all text books and
lecturers. Since we pointed it out in December 1978 , it has been
ignored for a further quarter century. All of today's text books are
written as though this problem, of charge spreading out across the plate,
remains unnoticed, like the Emperor's nakedness.
The spreading out of electric charge across the
capacitor plate is real electric current, and must cause real magnetic
field, according to Ampere's Rule or the Biot-Savart
Law. The alleged genius of Maxwell was that the notional electric current,
called by Maxwell "Displacement Current", was invented to produce
magnetic field and so lead to key conclusions. Since the key (and only)
purpose of Displacement Current
is to cause magnetic field, it is unacceptable that there continues to be
no discussion of the magnetic field which must be caused by the much more
real electric current as the electric charge spreads out across the plate
from the incoming wire.
The archetype for this
kind of myopia is Professor W H
including that on Displacement
Current, are celebrated worldwide. He has been given prizes for
lecturing excellence. Looking at his lecture, we can
learn a great deal. Early on he draws a uniform electric field in the
capacitor, but later on he says; “There is also a current going up on these
plates .... “. He draws an electric current travelling along the capacitor
plate at right angles to the horizontal current, which means that the
horizontal electric field in the capacitor cannot be uniform. He refuses
to discuss with me the magnetic field generated by this electric current.
(Compare with Walter
still makes time to reply to every single e-mail he gets from his internet
fans .) However, he gets closer than other luminaries to the crisis we
pointed out in December 1978
. No other lecturer or text book writer (including Heaviside)
admits, or notices, that there is such a sideways current flow. Two other
things are notable in his lecture. First is the bemused look on the faces
of the students. Second, we see the arcane mathematics which causes this
bemusement, and convinces the students that they are not capable of
becoming expert in the subject. Of course, his mathematics is not as
Byzantine as that in Wikipedia
The Catt Question.
When a TEM Step travels
down a coaxial cable at the speed of light for the dielectric, negative charge
must accumulate on the bottom conductor to terminate the electric field.
That charge cannot reach the required point in time.
In Faraday’s famous
experiment, a TEM step enters the primary of the transformer. When it has
reached half way across the transformer, the change in magnetic field in
the primary should cause a voltage to be registered to the far right in the
voltmeter, but it measures no voltage because no signal has yet reached it.
Pictures deriving from Crosstalk
I have only just realised
that the Pictures
deriving from experiment show that there can be two distinct electric
fields and two distinct magnetic fields, that is, two energy currents, at
one point in space at the same instant of time, which defies Faraday’s Law.
Crosstalk (Noise) in Digital Systems
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , some of which is in two
of my books. The argument starts at page 30 of one book , and at page 4 of the other book
, continuing on page
55 . Here in
figure 9.2 we see “a very narrow pulse introduced at the front end of the
active line. If there were no parallel passive line nearby, this pulse
would travel down the active line (at the speed of light for the
dielectric) more or less unchanged,” in a TEM mode. “However, as the other
two traces show, the presence of the passive line caused the original
narrow pulse to break up into two similar pulses.”
The Role of the Luminary
do “Questions for Classical Electrodynamics” appear to accredited luminaries
– Professors of Electronics, text book writers, journal referees and the
like? The challenge they face is formidable. They are deeply immersed in a
number of red herrings;
dualism is the Kiss of Death to an attempt to grasp the discussion.
Particles have to be removed from our consciousness.
major barrier to their grasping the real subject is the wrong theory for a
TEM Wave , "The Rolling Wave"
, which we can be sure all of them adhere to. This makes it extremely hard
for them to grasp the idea that the same amount of energy is travelling
through the red square and the blue square in the diagram. In fact, they
do not even know the diagram. I found it in only one text book fifty years
ago, and cannot find it on the www. They might well know the pattern made
by iron filings above a magnet, but this does not mean that they are
familiar with curvilinear
squares , and their association with the Poynting
Vector. Wikipedia does not have the diagram, and neither do
other www pages on “The Poynting Vector”.
Familiarity with the diagram
is necessary. I have only recently realised that this field pattern is not
available to a professor or text book writer. Lacking that picture, and
also thinking that E causes H causes E "The
Rolling Wave" , it is almost impossible for them to think clearly about the
second, third and fourth Questions above.
idea that a TEM Wave must be sinusoidal is pervasive. To confirm this, do a
Google search for “TEM Wave” or “Transverse Electromagnetic Wave”. If a
sine wave is imposed on any of the above four Questions, it submerges the
Question in confusion. Of course, it is difficult to see how a
non-sinusoidal TEM Wave could propagate according to "The Rolling Wave"
theory. That is, "The
Rolling Wave" excludes the possibility that one logic gate can
communicate with the next! Classical Electrodynamics doggedly ignores
digital electronics, which is more than 95% of electronics today.