Charged Capacitor

Electromagnetism Synthesis, early 2010

Ivor Catt

 Analysis within Electromagnetism Synthesis, early 2010





A Google search for “tem wave” + animation gives;

http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Teaching/Courses/EFT/transmission/html/TEMWave.html , an animation of the TEM Wave. However, it is sinusoidal, and not guided by two parallel conductors. The same goes for http://webphysics.davidson.edu/applets/EMWave/EMWave.html . Animations of the TEM Wave on the www are sparse, and really the only one for our purpose is mine, at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/cattq.htm . The other feature which is missing from text books and from the www except for my websites is the drawing of electric field, magnetic field, current and charge, shown by me at Figures 4 and 5 in http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/1_2.htm . At Figure 6 we move into the subject of reflections. It is highly significant that these figures cannot be found anywhere else on the www. They are also not drawn in text books. This explains why the TEM step guided by two conductors is not grasped by accredited experts in electromagnetism. For instance, see Sir Michael Pepper, “knighted for services to Physics”, Editor of the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society, at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2812.htm . It is important to notice that, after digital electronics have been with us for fifty years, its most fundamental precept, the TEM step, remains virtually unknown (or more accurately, it is not grasped).




A number of factors come together today to increase the credibility of a revolutionary approach to electromagnetic theory. In particular, an experiment conducted in the near future will clearly overturn one mainstay of the traditional view, that of the “steady charged capacitor”. The experiment is discussed at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/965.htm


What follows is a discussion of three stages. (1) Charging a capacitor. (2) The state of a charged capacitor. (3) Discharging a capacitor.

[Here we see the false idea that when we close the switch,

 electric current flows instantaneously

 through all parts of the circuit.]


Charging a capacitor.

Here are examples of the conventional view of how a capacitor charges.






When the switch from the battery is closed, the electricity has the problem of fighting its way through a resistor, which resists it. There is no consideration of energy, because for this purpose electricity is not energy. Energy is Watts, which is Amps x Volts, or the TEM Wave. From the point of view of power, or energy, the TEM Wave is the product of the electric field E and the magnetic field H. As the capacitor charges up, the voltage across the resistor diminishes, and so the electric current through it reduces. The result is a slowing down of the charging of the capacitor, and an exponential rise in its voltage, never fully reaching that of the battery..


It has never been disputed that while the capacitor is charging up, energy current, and with it electric current, is reciprocating from end to end of the capacitor. This was described for the first time in 1978, at Figure 2 in  http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec2.htm , part of the article at http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm . This reported fact has been ignored for thirty years.


Each time it reflects at the left hand end of the capacitor, a further small step of voltage is created in the capacitor.


The Steady Charged Capacitor.

Now conventional theory is that when the capacitor finally charges up, the energy settles down to a steady state, a stationary state, with stationary positive charge on the top conductor, or capacitor plate, and steady negative charge on the bottom conductor. In contrast, the new theory says that this energy current, travelling at the speed of light for the dielectric, never slows down, but continues to reciprocate for ever. This new theory is what our forthcoming experiment will prove. See http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/965.htm . By beginning to discharge the capacitor, we will see what its state must have been before discharge began.


Discharging a Capacitor.

Now we come to the discharging of the capacitor. First we need to appreciate that a piece of coaxial cable, a transmission line, is a capacitor. The Reed Relay Pulse Generator generates a pulse from a piece of charged transmission line, that is, from a capacitor.


Instruction Manual. Type 109 Pulse Generator. Tektronix Inc. Copyright 1963

p2-2 "The output pulse duration is equal to twice the transit time of the charge line used, plus a small built-in charge time due to the lead length from the GR panel connectors to the mercury switch contact point.

The transit time of the cable is defined as the time required for a signal to pass from one end of the line to the other. For a 10-nsec charge line then, the duration of the output pulse would be 20 nanoseconds

p2-3 "The pulse amplitude obtained will be approximately one-half the power source voltage .... "


No explanation except mine has ever been given for the fact that the output from the capacitor (or transmission line) is half the voltage and double the expected length (duration). My explanation, published in 1982, is http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/97rdeat2.jpg ;


“Now in his Electrical Papers, vol. 1, 1892, page 438, Heaviside wrote;

‘Now, in Maxwell's theory there is the potential energy of the displacement produced in the dielectric parts by the electric force, and there is the kinetic or magnetic energy of the magnetic force in all parts of the field, including the conducting parts. They are supposed to be set up by the current in the wire. We reverse this; the current in the wire is set up by the energy transmitted through the medium around it….’”

The revolutionary approach is based on energy considerations, not electricity. Consider the Figure 2 in http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec2.htm from my article at http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm . The two lines to the right represent the capacitor, and unfortunately the three components – battery, switch and capacitor - are arranged differently from in the four articles cited above. As in those articles




http://www.splung.com/content/sid/3/page/capacitors , the charging of the capacitor through a resistor is exponential, but this time the exponential is made up of a series of small steps. This is because under this theory, the battery, far from trying to deliver electric current into the top conductor, delivers energy between the two guiding conductors in the form of a transverse electromagnetic wave. Heaviside called this “energy current”.


“Energy (current) cannot stand still; it can only travel at the speed of light. Any apparently steady field is a combination of two energy currents. Any apparently steady field is a combination of two energy currents travelling in opposite directions at the speed of light”. http://www.forrestbishop.4t.com/DEDV2/DEDV2p248-9.jpg from http://www.forrestbishop.4t.com/DEDV2/DEDVolumeII.htm .


Thus, according to the new theory, the following happens. While charging, energy current reciprocates from end to end of the capacitor. While it remains charged, energy current reciprocates from end to end of the capacitor. While discharging, energy current is travelling at the speed of light in the capacitor.


In contrast, the conventional theory becomes as follows. When charging, energy current reciprocates from end to end of the capacitor, as shown in http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec2.htm , part of my article http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm . Then while standing charged, this comes to a halt. Then when discharged, for instance from the Reed Relay Pulse Generator, it behaves strangely, as if the energy was reciprocating before discharge began.


Ivor Catt.   18 January 2010 / 15 February 2010







Ivor Catt. January 2010





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