A restatement of Theory D on 3.3.2020

A long charged capacitor has energy reciprocating from end to end between the electrodes. See Wakefield. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x3216b.pdf

When two parallel wires are connected to the electrodes, some of this energy rushes out, guided by the wires. It is called ExH. If a lamp is connected at the end of the wires, the lamp receives the energy and lights.

During its journey, some of the ExH energy turns sideways and enters the wires, warming them. Using the characteristics of the copper wire and of space, this energy can be calculated mathematically. This energy dissipated in the wire, similar to the energy reaching the lamp, has been wrongly thought to be another substance, electricity. It is not. It is all ExH energy.


(The concept of “skin depth” is relevant, involving more mathematics, reinforcing the mathematical artefact, “electric current”.)

All this has no answer to cattq, http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/cattq.htm , where the fabrications break down.


Washing up




It is necessary to clarify certain details in the present situation. The problem is brought out in Alex Yakovlev’s Royal Society article when he says; “Theory C, or Catt theory”.

For reasons which will not be discussed here, Alex indulges in ego massage by inventing the phrase; “Catt theory”.

It was a mistake for me to christen the third theory “Theory C”, since it brought confusion. My defence is perhaps that it was the third theory, coming after A and B.

Sir Isaac Newton’s Three Laws of Motion are immortal, but Newton was not. The three laws, not Newton, are what is important. Newton was merely an instrument for the truth.

Recently I attempted to clarify our situation by naming the four laws N, H, C and C+.

I now revoke this christening.

The four theories are N, H, C and D. This moves it away from personalities. The destination is Theory D, not C.

Theory N. The battery delivers current into the wires. The (electric) current causes the ExH field. The ExH field enters the lamp, and it lights up.

Theory H. (“We reverse this,” Heaviside.) The battery delivers the ExH energy current between the wires. The energy current causes the current in the wires. The ExH energy enters the lamp and the lamp lights. (Some of the energy enters the wires sideways, and warms them.) The energy which lights the lamp always travelled in the space between the wires. http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/x41h.pdf ; “By the way, is there such a thing as an electric current?”

Theory C. The battery delivers the ExH energy current. The ExH enters the lamp and the lamp lights. Electric current is not involved.

Theory D. The battery delivers the ExH energy current between the wires. The ExH energy enters the lamp and the lamp lights. There is no electric current.

Ivor Catt.  11.12.2018


Theories N, H, C, D, Washing Up - with questions for discussion




Monika Vandory

3:45 PM (3 hours ago)



to me


Theory N
Is the normal theory, normal means in this case established, accepted by the mainstream, accepted by everybody.
The battery delivers
 electric current into the wires. The electric current causes or creates the electric (E) and magnetic (H) field in the space between (or around the wires?) written ExHThe ExHfield enters the lamp, and it lights up.

Theory H
“We reverse this”, said Heaviside. The battery delivers electric and magnetic field (ExH), called 
energy current between the wires. The energy current causes the current in the wires. Some of the energy current enters the wires (when entered in the wires called current to distinguish it from N, electric current delivered by the battery or  ??) sideways, and warms the wires. The energy current (ExHenters the lamp and the lamp lights. The energy current (ExH) which lights the lamp always travelled in the space between the wires.

Theory C
When the battery lights a lamp 
electric current is not involved. The battery delivers the energy current (ExH) and the energy current lights the lamp.

Theory D 
There is no 
electric current. The battery delivers the energy current(ExH) between the wires. The energy current lights the lamp.


H, C and D, all 3 are explained by energy currentEnergy current (ExH) lights the lamp.

C  only excludes  electric current but doesn't negate its existence.

D  Denies existence of electric current.

N, H, C and D have in common that the field (ExH) or (field (ExH) between the wires finally lights the lamp, correct? [Yes. Ivor Catt. 15.3.2020]

Open Questions written in blue. – Monica Vandory, Salzburg