The continuing problem.


Figures 3 and 4 should be compared with my diagrams . It happens that, as I have drawn, the loss in voltage amplitude is 50% for each three metres.


Although "The End of Electric Charge and Electric Current as we know them"  appears to me clear, it is quite possible that professors and text book writers will succeed in even evading an understanding, of the simpler, clearer version to be published in “Electronics World”. The origin of their persistent misunderstanding and evasion, for instance of "The Catt Question" , goes back a long way, to the start of Electromagnetic Theory with Faraday’s discovery of his Law of Induction. The idea that he discovered that changing magnetic field caused electricity is now entrenched after nearly two centuries. The truth is that ExH electromagnetic field, or Energy Current, causes electromagnetic field. Or rather, what we find at the output of the transformer is what we injec


In contrast, let us look at my piece written in 2007. First we have to migrate from his experiment, with two coils wound round a magnetic toroid, to the simpler case of two overlapping coils. The same laws should apply, even to the one turn air cored transformer that I discuss. This migration, from an iron cored toroid, is necessary, since I have never researched or written anything about magnetic materials since the 1960s, when they ceased to have a role in my subject, digital electronics. I had previously confronted the magnetic amplifier, but the last vestiges of magnetic material disappeared from digital electronics in the 1960s when semiconductor memory replaced magnetic core memory.


In this scenario , Faraday does not deliver electric current which causes magnetic field. Rather, he delivers a TEM ExH wave, illustrated in Figure 5 of my book. This TEM Wave, which contains both an electric and a magnetic dimension, transfers across from primary to secondary in the manner discussed in my 1967 paper and in my 1979 book . Mike Gibson’s work 1 , 2 , is very relevant, but unfortunately the associated guidance is too obscure. My attempt to guide is here . Migration from inductor to transformer needs careful attention. However, if you get there, you will see clear demonstration that a sine wave enters the primary of a transformer as a series of ExH wafers, reciprocates to and fro in the primary, and leaks out into the secondary. It becomes clear if the inputted sine waves is altered into a series of steps.


The way in which electromagnetic ExH field transfers from the primary to the secondary in an air cored transformer is very similar to the process when charging a capacitor, discussed in my 1978 paper . Electromagnetic ExH energy reciprocates from end to end in the primary and some of it leaks out into the secondary. Always, electric field (and electric current if it really exists) carries with it its associated magnetic field. There is never a transfer between electric energy, or field, and magnetic energy, or field.


The Heaviside Signal.


A totally separate barrier to understanding by a professor or text book writer, but one which grows out of the above, is the fact that they have the wrong picture for a TEM Wave. I have called this wrong picture “The Rolling Wave”, as opposed to the correct picture, which I call "The Heaviside Signal" . The wrong “Rolling Wave” is taught by Einstein and Feynman . “The Rolling Wave” is a development from the false deduction by Faraday, that magnetic field caused electric current.