Morgenthaler ,

The IEEE Antenna and Propagation Society (Southerner), who promoted the 2011 Morgenthaler (Southerner) book,


contradict the Westerner (p242)  IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 6,


December 2012


“The point about the Catt Anomaly has, says Ivor, nothing to do with his theory. It is an anomaly between rival textbooks and professors [Pepper and McEwan]. They will answer his polite query in their condescending authoritative manner until they are told that their ‘explanation’ is the exact opposite of that taken by other authors and professors . Then they cannot be induced to communicate with one another to resolve the problem.” – Editorial, Electronics World, August 2003, p3.





The Westerners.

IEEE, Pieraccini and Selleri

Catt has claimed that no academic representative has ever replied in a satisfactory, written, public, manner to his raising this question. In his own book [4], he cites several personal communications. One is a 1993 letter by [Southerner] Sir Michael Pepper (born August 10, 1942), a renowned physicist active in semiconductors. .... .... Besides some wrong explanations [e.g. Pepper’s, Lago’s and Morgenthaler’s Southerner answers] incompatible with Gauss’ Law, most of the [Westerner] answers agreed in considering the problem not to be an anomaly at all.


Pieraccini omits to mention that Sir Michael Pepper is incompatible with Gauss’s Law.





The Southerners.

The Power and Beauty of Electromagnetic Fields

Frederic R. Morgenthaler

ISBN: 978-1-118-05757-5

678 pages

December 2011, Wiley-IEEE Press

 Author Information

Frederic R. Morgenthaler, PhD, joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1960, becoming a Full Professor in 1968. He retired from MIT in 1996 and is currently Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering. Dr. Morgenthaler has served as a consultant to the U.S. government as well as private industry. A Fellow of the IEEE and the holder of approximately one dozen patents, Dr. Morgenthaler has authored over 100 scientific publications and papers.


The Power and Beauty of Electromagnetic Fields


By Frederic R. Morgenthaler  2011 pub. John Wiley& Sons, Inc.

Page 271

Chapter 18

See pp272-3 of the Morgenthaler book .


An idealised uniform transmission line is comprised of two or more perfect conductors that are parallel to one another and extend to infinity without any change in their transverse geometries. In the simplest cases, the conductors are surrounded by free-space and the guided electric and magnetic fields are transverse to the direction of propagation and so denoted TEM (transverse electric and magnetic).




.... the electric and magnetic fields are both zero inside the conductors ....

.... It is tempting, but incorrect, to conclude that the conductors merely provide a path for the charge distribution to zip along at the speed of light, keeping pace with the generated fields. If this were true, .... the charges would be traveling .... with incredibly large energies. .... Yet somehow the individual charges ....  .... act together to simulate a relativistic current density .... .... Mobile negative charge which is neutralised by the fixed positive charge of the lattice simply moves very slightly toward or away from the surface of the conductor as the electric field of the TEM pulse moves by. [This is the Southerner view. – I Catt]


by. This creates the surface charges that are needed in order to originate and terminate the electric field. As the pulse moves on (at or near the speed of light), those charges move back into the metal and different charges further down the line repeat the action to produce new surface charge as required. [This is the Southerner view. – I Catt] Simply put, the same charge does not travel with the wave, but the distribution as a whole acts as if it did. The macroscopic Maxwell Equations cannot, of course, distinguish between the individual charges. .... If no (and consequently rho) approach infinity, .... .... The result is dispersion-free propagation.

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 1993

Professor M Pepper FRS on "The Catt Question"


As the wave travels at light velocity, then charge supplied from outside the system would have to travel at light velocity as well, which is clearly impossible.

The answer is found by considering the nature of conduction in metals. Here we have a lattice of positively charged atoms surrounded by a sea of free electrons which can move in response to an electric field. This response can be very rapid and results in a polarisation of charge at the surface and through the metal.


August 23, 1993 Dear Raeto West, I write with reference to your letter of August 19. Your description of the process is correct; as a TEM wave advances so charge within the conductor is polarised and the disturbance propagates at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave .... .... Yours sincerely, M Pepper


Book Review 
published in the IEE Journal
 " Electronics& Communication Engineering Journal " October 1995, p218.

Electromagnetism 1

by Ivor Catt

Westfields Press 1994

"The main body of the text is devoted to transmssion lines ....

There are numerous examples of sloppy argument in the text. .... The flaws in these arguments are easy to see. ....


For a vacuum dielectric the speed of the wavefront is the speed of light so that, according to Catt, the charges on the conductors must travel at the speed of light, which is impossible. This is the 'Catt anomaly'. Since the wavefront does travel at the speed of light, so do the charges, which then have infinite mass. It follows that there cannot be charges on the conductor surfaces and conventional theory must be wrong.

The flaw here is the assumption that the charges move with the wave. whereas in reality they simply come to the surface as the wave passes, and when it has gone they recede into the conductor. [This is the Southerner view. I Catt.] No individual charge moves with the velocity of the wave. The charges come to the surface to help the wave go by and then pass the task to other charges further along the line which are already there and waiting. This is the mechanism of guidance and containement. There is no anomaly.


Catt's belief in his own work is clearly sincere, but this reviewer, after lengthy and careful consideration, can find virtually nothing of value in this book.



In the IEE/IET review of my book, The author Laso of actually gives one answer out of the two Establishment answers to the Catt Question; the Pepper, or Southerner, answer. He is valuable, because the Southerner answer is given by fewer luminaries than is the Westerner answer, so Lago/IEE reinforces the minority (southerner) Pepper/ Morgenthaler stable, who defy Gauss’s Law.]