em

Threshold of State of the Art

Ivor Catt. 5th March 2010.

To Mike Gibson and to Forrest.

I now have a TEM wave travelling across the primary of a one turn transformer. “Energy current abhors asymmetry”, so the step which enters the transformer breaks down into Even Mode and Odd Mode. Using classical theory, I have “proved” this. See my 1967 paper partly reproduced in http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/4_1.htm and http://www.ivorcatt.org/digihwdesignp05.htm where I start with a two wire transmission line and move forward to a signal (active) line and parallel passive line. All of this is enmeshed in classical theory, and we have not developed the equivalent theory under “Theory C”, that there is no electric current. The approach is begun at http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2_4.htm

We very much need further development in this area.

Consider Figure 30 in http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2_4.htm . This derives from Figure 14 of http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2_1.htm . The energy current confronts three possible directions, and breaks up as appropriate – in the case of http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2_4.htm none of it advancing north or south if the conductors are perfect. We need to gain clarity on this matter. Then we move to the next problem. In the case of surface conductors, in Figure 9.3 of http://www.ivorcatt.org/digihwdesignp57.htm we see two spikes separating out on the passive line. However, we know that in the case of buried conductors, the two spikes will travel at the same velocity, see Figure 8 of my paper “Crosstalk (Noise) on Digital Systems, IEEE Trans. Elect. Comp., vol. EC-16 no. 16, December 1967 p747, which I must upload onto the www. Thus, two energy currents of opposite polarity are travelling together in the region close to the passive line. (In other regions they are not of opposite polarity.) Now we have to think about how two energy currents of opposite polarity can travel together in the same region of space.

This seems to lead us towards further insight as to the nature of space. It appears that, as I said decades ago, “Space is the ability to accommodate energy”. However, it appears that a region of space can accommodate two lots of energy which have opposite orientation, E and H, and travel in the same direction.

Ivor 5 March 2010.

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Looking back in time, I find my progress in developing electromagnetic theory has taken many decades. I have done much work and gathered many insights, but some of the synthesis is only now coming to me.

Along with everyone else, I have been guilty of ignoring the magnetic field and concentrating too much on the electric field, and on voltage. We are encouraged to do this because we can measure voltage much more easily than we can measure magnetic field. Take Faraday’s law, the starting point for all of today’s theory. http://www.electromagnetism.demon.co.uk/images/7877.jpg

Faraday did not deliver electric current into the primary of his transformer, and this did not create magnetic field. Rather, he delivered electromagnetic field, which has a magnetic dimension as well as its electric dimension. It approached his transformer at the speed of light, and then reciprocated from side to side of the primary coil at the speed of light. (See animations , Figures 4 and 5  of "Displacement Current" , and Figure 3 . At every stage, it was magnetic field just as much as it was electric field. Or we could say that it was electric field just as much as it was magnetic field. What entered the secondary of the transformer was both magnetic and electric, and what left the secondary and advanced towards the voltage meter was magnetic as well as electric.

However, Mike Gibson fell into the same trap when he discussed the one turn transformer (2) , the “prototype” for Faraday’s experiment when he supposedly discovered electromagnetic induction . Like me, Mike did not mention the magnetic field, which obviously exists just as much as the electric field.