Analysis of the development of Electromagnetic Theory


Only today have I fully realised the following.

There are four benchmarks in the history of electromagnetic theory.


The beginning, with the discoveries of Oersted


and Faraday http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction



The development of classical electromagnetic theory (Maxwell), based on (1).



After 1950, the move from analogue electronics (radio) to digital electronics.


(4) Light.


Light was of course there from the start.


Digital electronics spawned a new, radically different, electromagnetic theory which remains ignored/suppressed by academia and by learned journals, for instance by The Proceedings of the IEEE.


After 1950, digital electronics rapidly became the vast majority of all electronics in the world. At the core of (3) digital electronics is the TEM step travelling at the speed of light (for the dielectric) from one logic gate to the next. It is much closer to light than to (1), the discoveries which triggered the development of classical electromagnetic theory. The only difference between the logic step and light is that the logic step is not sinusoidal, as is analogue electronics and also light. All the same, digital electronics (3) is closer to light than it is to (1), the original discoveries by Oersted and Faraday.


The outstanding feature which differentiates between (1) and (2), or (1,2) on the one hand and (3) and (4), or (3,4) on the other is in the matter of velocity. In the case of (3,4), there is only one velocity, the velocity of light; 300,000 in vacuo and a little slower in other materials. In contrast, (1,2) concentrates on stationary fields, charges and unchanging el;ectric currents, and migrates towards slowly changing fields and charges. Also, in the case of (1,2) there appears to be instantaneous action at a distance. For instance, the amount of change in magnetic flux throughout a surface is thought to cause an emf around the periphery of that surface, with no consideration of the fact thateasuring instrument cannot make a measurement relating to changing magnetic flux at the far end of the surface. See "Faraday's Law"


The response of accredited experts in classical electromagnetics to the  "The Catt Question" show that the TEM step, central to the digital electronics of the last half century, is not understood by those controlling the teaching and discussion of electromagnetic theory.


Ivor Catt.  11 February 2010






Ivor Catt.   11 February 2010