

[ Electromagnetic Theory from First Principles ] [ Attempted direct route to new theory. ] Books on the www. Electromagnetism 1 , Digital \hardware Design , Five more books As to my own ideas, my world view is significantly different from those of adherents to "Modern Physics" and also to its dissidents. I suppose that from my point of view, the arguments between orthodox men and their dissidents are palace battles. I shall put this on a web page, because it might turn out to be valuable. One idea which separates me is the idea of a Single Velocity Universe . . Nothing can travel at any speed other than the speed of light 300,000. The kinetic theory and also observation of a rotating flywheel will help to explain why so much of what is around us appearing to be stationary or travelling slowly is in fact composed of constituents all of which are travelling at the speed of light 300,000. It is possible that dismissal of my idea of a single velocity universe will not indicate that all my work has to be dismissed, but when my work is addressed, the Single Velocity Universe will always be lurking in the background. While researching the interconnection of high speed (1.35 nsec) logic in Motorola, Phoenix, from 1964 to 1967 approx., I bought the key equipment. Tektronix 661 sampling oscilloscope (already there) with 350 psec response (already there) plugin and 4S2 100 psec response plugin. (Later at Sperry Semiconductor I bought the HP 20psec response machine, but did not use it before I was fired.) With the 100 psec plugin I could look at a pulse or step, and the further down the wire(s) I looked, the further to the right of the oscilloscope screen it appeared. I bought a "trombone"  a piece of solid coax which could be lengthened. (Note that since the Zo relates to the ratio of r and R, one portion of the trombone can slide into the other portion, thus shortening it while retaining a constant 50 ohm Zo. I connected a piece of coax including the trombone to the input and output of a 1nsec logic gate, and observed the resulting square wave, the high being the time round the loop, followed by the low, also being the delay round the loop. This experience, with a change of frequency, or time delay, merely by squeezing the trombone, convinced me that what I saw really existed. That is, the TEM Wave existed. Under Occam's Razor, I now had to build up as much of the constituents of the universe as I could out of such TEM Waves. They appeared to be very versatile, and interacted with each other through 90 degrees, see Figure 19 of my book http://www.ivorcatt.co.uk/2_1.htm . Since TEM Waves could interact with each other in such a way, it appeared that they had enough versatility for the construction out of them of all the constituents of the universe. I have attempted to construct the electron and the crystal out of TEM Waves at The Electron and The Crystal . I have diagrams of the TEM Wave at Figures 4 and 5 . Forrest's moving pictures of the TEM Wave will be helpful. Example . A very long time ago, I excluded the particle as a building block when building the universe. See Walton ; "Faraday's Law of Induction; that perhaps the Law was only an approximation and did not hold exactly at the atomic level. Catt wanted no particles introduced into the argument [!!]." I have not seen the particle properly defined. Either it has zero diameter, which has not been asserted, or it has finite diameter. In the latter case, the right hand edge of the particle does not know what is happening to the left hand edge at that time, so the particle is not a Primitive. This leads me to a major dislocation in "Modern Physics". Whereas they persistently say there is no instantaneous action at a distance, they (1) embrace the particle (presumably of finite and not zero aize), and (2) do not appreciate that what occurs at a point is only affected by what arrives at that point at that instant in time. (Note that the "Single Velocity Universe" rumbles around in the background.) Although giving lip service to "no instantaneous action at a distance", perhaps calling it "relativity", they do not take on board its implications. The implication is that at a point at one instant in time, what happens results from the interaction of what is arriving at that point at that instant in time. [If we dismiss the Single Velocity Universe, we merely have to add as a further cause (at thast instant in time) whatever is at that point at that instant in time.] Note that the sine wave distributed through space cannot be a Primitive. I have a three dimensional space which is absolute and does not change. Time is completely different from space, so that "four dimensional spacetime" does not exist within my worldview. Within such three dimensional space, a Primitive might appear to have to have three dimensions, each approaching zero in magnitude. However, the TEM Wave has only two dimensions and travels in the third direction/dimension at a fixed velocity 300,000 . It is waferthin in the direction of propagation, in the limit in the manner of the Calculus. In order to be able to handle it, we think of a TEM very thin wave which is uniform in the two dimensions other than the direction of propagation. These two directions are called the E field and the H field, although it is really a two dimensional electromagnetic field, with the E and H fields coexisting. A TEM pulse or step can be formed out of a sequence of wafers. They are infinite in number, and approach zero thickness. Each very narrow segment, or wafer, making up a TEM pulse is independent of the others. All of these thin wafers travel at the speed of light, 300,000 , so a thin wafer has no knowledge of the other thin wafers ahead of it or behind it. The Heaviside Signal . There are two versions of the TEM Wave, and more or less the whole of academia and all text book writers cleave to the wrong one; The Rolling Wave . In The Rolling Wave, the E field causes the H field which in turn causes the E field. The reason why this became entrenched is because at the start, the Oersted discovery that electric current causes a magnetic field and the Faraday discovery that changing magnetic field caused electricity caused the idea of causality between E field and H field to become entrenched. In contrast, my world view interprets the Oersted and Faraday discoveries very differently, and there is no causalilty between E field and H field. They coexist in fixed proportion. The relative phases of E and H in a TEM Wave
 
