Discovered by Michael Faraday in 1845, the Faraday effect was the first

experimental evidence that light and electromagnetism are related.


Theory C

Maxwell (actually Faraday) said that light was electromagnetic.

When the sun warms you it does not use electric current.

When a battery lights a lamp it does not use electric current.


Ivor Catt  14.10.2018

This resolves cattq.

May 1846, Faraday published the article Thoughts on Ray Vibrations,

 a prophetic publication in which he speculated that light

could be a vibration of the electric and magnetic lines of force.



Another attempt to describe “Theory C”, developed today 15.10.2018

The objective is a minimum number of words.


Sun warms you without using electricity.

Battery lights lamp without using electricity.

Clue; Heaviside’s “Energy Current” ExH warms you and lights a lamp.

Wood burns without losing phlogiston.

You do not get cold by losing caloric.



Howie, ex Head of the Cavendish, said Catt was on an “absurd ego trip”. This caused me to rename “Theory C” as “Theory D”.

Theory D in 21 words.

“When a battery is joined to a lamp by two wires and the lamp lights, nothing travels along inside the wires.”