Discovered in 1976.
Version with diagrams.p1
The Death of Electric Current
By Ivor Catt, Wireless World dec 1980
A major advance in electromagnetic theory, which I shall call the transition from Theory N to Theory H, was made by Oliver Heaviside a century ago. What is proposed here is a transition from Theory H to a third theory, Theory C. It is to be hoped that the response to Theory C will be more perceptive than was the general response to Theory H a century ago ….
…. Electric charge does not exist according to Theory C. The so-called electric charge is merely the edge of two reciprocating energy currents. In the case of the so-called steady charged capacitor, the electric fields of the two energy currents add but the magnetic fields cancel, so that it has come to be thought that a charged capacitor is devoid of magnetic field.
Now let us consider a simple circuit with battery and resistor. Two conductors guide the energy current from battery to resistor. It enters the resistor sideways (A. F. Kip, Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism, pub. McGraw-Hill 1962, p327). ‘Electric current’ is merely the side of a wave of energy current. If a ‘conductor’ is perfect, the energy current has a sharp side; the so-called ‘electric current’ has infinite density in the outside surface of the ‘electrical conductor’, which Heaviside called an obstructor.
Energy current penetrates an imperfect conductor inn the same way as it enters a resistor, from the side. In this case, the region containing a variation in energy current density,. The so-called ‘electric current’, widens and penetrates into the conductor; skin depth is no longer zero.
Nothing exists behind a mirror; nothing happens there. The velocity of the ‘things’ behind the mirror does not depend on the medium, or material, behind the mirror.
As Maxwell’s equations show, ‘electric current’ is always derivable as the gradient on the side of a wave of energy current. Unlike energy current (but like the images in a mirror), electric current contains no energy, it has no function, and it explains nothing. Electric current does not exist.
Although a cloud cannot exist without edges, the edges of a cloud do not exist They have no width, volume, or materiality. However, the edges of a cloud can be drawn. Their shapes can be manipulkated graphically and mathematically. The same is true of the so-called ‘electric current’.
Theory N. The sheep are forced out of the pen by the sheep-digs. The dogs then run alongside the sheep. There can only be a forward flow if sheep-dogs first advance on both sides of the sheep, which the dogs direct and cause.
Theory H. The sheep rush out of the pen into the great open spaces. They will go forward regardless, but their direction is actively guided by the sheep-dogs running alongside, the front of the dogs always keeping level with the foremost sheep.
Theory C. There are no sheep-dogs. The sheep leave the pen and flow out into the great open spaces. Some of the space is rougher. (This rough space was previously thought to be terrain preferred by the dogs.) Here fewer sheep go, and their rate of advance is slower. Some ground is very obstructive, nearly impassable for sheep.
Although iut might appear that the sheep are actively guided by the rough terrain towards the smooth terrain, this is not so . Neither does a grease mark on blotting paper actively guide the ink towards the ungrreasy areas. There is no active guidance mechanism; greasy paper is merely bad blotting paper with poor capillary action, passively guiding the ink.
The excision of sheep-dogs from the theory is a giant simplification. Nothing flows in the conductor; nothing happens therein. Heaviside was right to call it an obstructor. Half of the primitives in electromagnetic theory disappear, and it ceases to be a dualistic theory. r and J disappear, becoming merely the physically non-existent results of the mathematical manipulation of E and H, with no more significance than “circularity” [see Letters in Wireless World, June 1979, p82).
The direct transition from Theory N to Theory C is similar to the change in combustion theory from phlogiston to oxygen. Phlogiston is very similar to electricity, being a strange ‘fluid’ which permeates solids. But whereas the oxygen which ‘replaced’ phlogiston was still within the same body, the energy current which replaces electricity is not where the electricity was; it is where it was not,. This is a very difficult transition. If the idea of replacing the well known phlogiston by oxygen caused mirth at High Table, we have to expect Theory C to generate widespread hilarity.
I would like to thank David Walton and Malcolm Davidson …. For their dogged support for six years. [This has now lengthened to 28 years.] ….
./ ./ ./ ./ ./
Genesis of The Catt Anomaly
…Peter G. M. Dawe, Wireless World aug81.
. Catt’s very interesting article in Wireless World December 1980 …. If he is correct in his analysis it would imply that a lot of our fundamental teaching in electronics is wrong…
The author replies:
Mr Dawe’s recapitulation, para. 2, deals with a so-called ‘steady state’ situation. Conventional theory covers for these quite well; it was developed for that purpose. However, conventional theory cannot cope with the transient condition, as we shall see. Consider the situation ¼ nanosecond after we close the switches in the diagram below [of a battery connected through two switches and then through two long parallel conductors, to a resistor.]
A voltage-current step has advanced three inches to the right. Behind the step, there is a voltage drop between the wires. The E lines must terminate on electrons in the lower wire. It follows that behind the step the lower conductor contains more electrons per inch than is contained in the uncharged section ahead of the step..